Declaration of Human Rights
【序言】 鑑於對人類家庭所有成員的固有尊嚴及其平等的和不移的權利的承認, 乃是世界自由、正義及和平的基礎,
鑑於對人權的忽視及侮蔑已發展為野蠻暴行, 這些暴行玷污了人類的良心, 而一個人人享有言論和信仰自由並免於恐懼和匱乏的世界的來臨, 已被宣布為普通人民的最高願望,
鑑於為使人類不致迫不得已鋌而走險, 對暴政和壓迫進行反抗, 有必要使人權受法治的保護,
鑑於對這些權利和自由的普遍瞭解, 對於這個誓願的充分實現, 有很大的重要性,
recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of
all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace
in the world,
disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which
have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which
human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and
want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort,
to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be
protected by the rule of law,
is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in
fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in
the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social
progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the
United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human
rights and fundamental freedoms,
common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance
for the full realization of this pledge,
【宣告】 這一世界人權宣言, 作為所有人民和所有國家努力實現的共同標準, 以期每一個人和社會機構經常銘念本宣言, 努力通過教誨和教育, 促進對權利和自由的尊重, 並通過國家的和國際的漸進措施, 使這些權利和自由在各會員國本身人民及在其管轄下領土的人民中, 得到普遍和有效的承認和遵行。
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for
all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ
of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by
teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by
progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and
effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States
themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with
reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of
is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration,
without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion,
political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other
status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the
political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to
which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or
under any other limitation of sovereignty.
has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be
prohibited in all their forms.
shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal
protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination
in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such
has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for
acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by
shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and
impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of
any criminal charge against him.
Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent
until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all
the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one
shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission
which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law,
at the time when it was committed Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than
the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or
correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation Everyone has the
right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders
of each state.
Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return
to his country.
Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from
right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from
non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of
the United Nations.
Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one
shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change
and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or
religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to
equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending
family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to
protection by society and the State.
Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with
(2) No one
shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right
includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or
in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or
belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom
to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart
information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one
may be compelled to belong to an association.
Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly
or through freely chosen representatives.
Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this
shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by
universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent
free voting procedures.
as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to
realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in
accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic,
social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free
development of his personality.
Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and
favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal
Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring
for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and
supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of
has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working
hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and
well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and
medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the
event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack
of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All
children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social
Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the
elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory.
Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and
higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality
and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It
shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial
or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for
the maintenance of peace.
Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given
to their children.
Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the
community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its
Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests
resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is
is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full
development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the
exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such
limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due
recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting
the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a
rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and
principles of the United Nations.
this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person
any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the
destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.